Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, things such as programming language statements, database schemas, and. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | For nearly ten years, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been the industry standard for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and. the Unified Modeling Language (UML). One of the purposes of UML was to provide the development community with a stable and common design language that.
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Unified Modeling Language, UML, and the UML cube logo are trademarks of the Object Management. Group. The unified modeling language reference manual / James Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson, Grady Booch. Reader (PDF) format. you will have seen examples of all the main features of UML though not some Modelling languages are usually diagrammatic, because people seem to find. IBM Software Group. 3. Agenda. ▫ The Importance of Modeling. ▫ The Unified Modeling Language. ▫ Model-Driven Architecture. ▫ UML Diagrams. ▫ Extending the.
The idea is to create components that stack and interlock to form a dynamic GIS package for specific use, which will broaden the usage of geographic information into a wide range of GIS appli- cations. GIS are both data-oriented and process-oriented. Without considering distributed GIS processing, data can be shared but processing remains centralized. Full interoperability without distributed, interchangeable GIS components is impossible.
Introduction It is now increasingly common for computational tasks to be carried out in a heterogeneous, distributed computing environment. Frequently programs have to be re-written in another programming language so that they can be compiled and executed on another architecture.
Furthermore, integrated systems are now scaling beyond the Intranet to include data and compute resources available throughout the Internet.
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Maintaining a working software system in this computational jungle is a laborious and time-consuming practice. This is addressed on two levels: This paper is organized under the following headings: Distributive GIS System Architecture One of the main reasons for interoperability problems in GIS is that most of the systems were designed as closed systems using proprietary data structures and file formats.
A distributed GIS system has strengths in system reliability, efficiency, resource shar- ing, and flexibility for incremental system growth. The next section describes the current technology that allows to implement such system architecture. With the OMA, each object has a clearly defined contract in the form of an interface defini- tion that tells other objects what it can be expected to do. Also, tech- niques such as JAVA applets and ActiveX controls have been developed to provide a fully platform-independent interfaces for Internet applications.
The architecture consists of four main components: Distributed data objects and GIS components can freely interact and inter-operate on the network. In general, the require- ments for dynamically migrating or connecting GIS components will include a decision mak- ing process for choosing an appropriate architecture, a self-describing GIS component frame- work, and a comprehensive distributed component service.
CORBA allow clients to access heterogeneous servers Orfali and Harkey, and pro- vide distributed component services, such as object migration, global naming, life-cycle man- agement, and object implementation.
Some software design tools e. UML-to-com- ponents procedures should allow the creation of components for any hardware and software platform based on the defined functionality in order to achieve interoperability. In principle, the features of distributed components should be plug-and-play, interoperable, por- table and reusable, self-describing, and self-managing Orfali at al, ; Pountain, An object per- forms a task when it receives a message requesting action.
Objects can be reused as a unit in any GIS component program. The dynamic combination and migration of GIS components will benefit GIS processing with current distributed network environments. It can provide customizable services for dif- ferent users, heterogeneous platforms, and various network connections. The same compo- nent can be copied, moved, and executed in different machines with different configurations.
All You Need to Know About UML Diagrams: Types and 5+ Examples
Distributed components can interact with each other or be combined together to provide integrated services to users. The development of distributed components shifts the GIS soft- ware paradigm from a monolithic, feature-heavy approach to a flexible, modularized, and plug-and-play approach. GIS components should be designed and allocated based on different task-oriented catego- ries2.
Users can select these GIS components based on applications and tasks without worrying about compatibility with their systems and the installation details.
Although the analysis capabilities available are not on par with a full-featured GIS package, the intention of the product is to provide enough functionality to embed mapping operations and a moderate spatial query capability in specific applications. UML focuses on a standard modeling language, not a stan- dard process. It promotes a development process that is use-case driven, architecture centric, and iterative and incremental.
It allows deviations to be expressed in terms of its extension mechanisms. UML Summary, Version 1. In addition, non-semantic information can be attached to models using the three built-in extension mechanisms. UML provides a rich set of modeling concepts and notations designed to meet the needs of typical software modeling projects3. As with any language, the UML has its own notation and syntax. Its notation comprises a set of specialized shapes for constructing different kinds of software diagrams.
Each shape has a particular meaning, and the UML syntax dictates how the shapes can be combined. It also displays relationships such as containment, inheritance, asso ciations and others. This consists of the vertical dimension time and horizontal dimension different objects.
Numbers are used to show the sequence of messages. This diagram focuses on flows driven by internal processing. Depen dencies among components are shown, including source code components, binary code components, and executable components. Some components exist at compile time, at link time, at run times well as at more than one time. Software component in stances represent run-time manifestations of code units. A GIS component can be described in terms of its collaborations, interactions and interfaces.
The collaborations describe how the component in the context of its role co-operates with other components. The collaborations can be described in roles and interfaces. They can also be described in terms of UML collabo- ration diagrams.
The interactions can be described in terms of UML sequence diagrams. Although UML components may be shown in any structural modeling diagram, they are typically found in implementation model diagrams, such as component diagrams and deploy- ment diagrams.
A component diagram shows the organization and dependencies of compo- nents, and a deployment diagram shows how component and class instances are deployed on computational nodes. UML subpackages specify how model elements are customized and extended with new semantics. It defines the semantics for stereotypes, constraints, and tagged values. The power of GIS processing has long been correlated with a high level of difficulty. Of the many challenges, one of the most pressing is to build an infrastructure that can mold data and withstand intricate analysis from an easy-to-use, readily accessible distributive environment.
In general, sophisticated GIS processing is faced with difficulties in: It shows a dynamic sequential model of the system, specifically the flow of an object as its state changes due to the application of a certain activity or series of activities. In this context, UML will graphically describe the change of state of a data layer s through the application of a se- quence of activities.
UML can also support GIS processing at different levels of abstraction by decomposing a process into smaller parts. Just like with ModelBuilder, UML can be used to add new pro- cesses and change the relationships among processes. In addition, input parameters and as- sumptions can also be modified. Models can be turned into code to automate the process and can be re-used as macros for latter use.
UML mod- els can be ported without change to any computing environment i. To run these abstract models, processes have to be translated into implementation specific com- mands, scripts, and the user interface for the new application.
The translation of a UML model into software-specific commands requires a data layer specific to each software.
The next section describes how code is generated from UML models. Model-based code generation produces application source code auto- matically from graphical models of system behavior or architecture. Code can be in the form of stored procedures, statements, triggers, check clauses, and so on.
As diagrams are refined, new code can be created as existing code can be modified. Language abstraction has increased from assembly to high-level languages to UML graphi- cal models. The move from assembly to high-level languages suggests parallels for the use and adoption of model-based code generation, shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: UML supplement diagrams with text-based specifications of system actions such as computations. These diagrams are based on formal syntax and, in some cases, semantics-just as with high-level languages.
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These formalisms make it possible to generate code that imple- ments the structure, communication, and behavior of the object models. The three basic approaches are 1 structural, 2 behavioral, and 3 translative Bell, Structural approaches gen- erate code frames such as class interface specifications from models of the static relation- ships among objects.
Behavioral approaches can generate complete code using additional state-machine models and action specifications in a high-level language HLL.
Translative approaches use an application-independent architecture model to give users full control over translating complete models into code.
Figure 2: From such models, code generating tools see section 4. This approach is typically used in an elaborative methodology to incrementally develop designs and code in a gradual transition from UML models. Some vendors build into their generators the source code that corresponds to object con- structs that allows modeling object structure with constructs such as classes, attributes, types, and associations. Other tools use a translation engine and pre-built, customizable templates that specify mappings to particular source code source: Written in a script- ing language, templates guide the translation of models to code structures, such as class head- ers or function stubs.
Scripting languages enable designers to follow coding standards, cus- tomize the generated object architecture, and create templates for unsupported languages. Under the structural approach, there is no code generation for object behavior. Methods in this category model behavior as state machines without executable semantics.
Tools offer mechanisms for integrating hand code with the associated code structure that is generated. Other tools help reconcile models and code throughout the life cycle.
Programming environments can always integrate the generated and related explicit source code with commercial components, as- sembly code, legacy libraries, and subsystems that were not modeled. Structural code generation is incomplete, but it saves hand coding and provides an imple- mentation framework consistent with the models.
The approach affords modest reuse of trans- lation templates. UML models behavior with state-machines to represent actions that occur upon a state tran- sition. Coupled with models of object structure and communication, this technique enables tools to generate code for the entire application model. To model behavior of an entire system, the classic state-machine is extended in two ways: In the state diagrams, users specify the explicit code for handling transition events.
Translators use a pre-coded virtual machine VM for their version of state machines, either as library routines or built into the translator. This VM implements states, transitions, and communication with other state-machines. Translators integrate event-handling code such as action upon a transition with the virtual state machine.
These models can include environment interfaces as well as the software under develop- ment. A complete application model of object structure, behavior, and commu- nication is created using UML.
A translation engine then generates code for the application according to the mapping rules in the architecture. The translative approach offers significant reuse because the application and architecture models are independent. An architecture model is developed with a tool that supports this approach. An architecture model is a complete set of translation rules code patterns called templates that map UML constructs onto source code.
The mapping should be complete, that is, all UML constructs used in application models are translated. Templates or mecha- nisms address embedded issues such as memory layout, hard deadlines, interrupt service, timers, and hardware access.
Given an application model and an architecture, the translation engine extracts identified objects from the model repository, makes substitutions, and emits code according to the scripted mapping rules.
Translation can include code from a run-time library and can vary generated code according to options or model annotations about design properties. Code generation is totally controlled using in the translative approach and the code is potentially complete. These advantages include the ability to build larger, more complex systems and improve maintainability with models that are more understandable than code. With the capability to synchronize changes in models and code comes the opportunity to easily iterate application development in support of an elabo- rative methodology.
A useful way to explore model-based code generation is to consider what the approaches have in common and how they vary. Some variables in- clude: Inheritance — Inheritance is a mechanism by which child classes inherit the properties of their parent classes. Abstraction — Mechanism by which implementation details are hidden from user. Encapsulation — Binding data together and protecting it from the outer world is referred to as encapsulation.
Polymorphism — Mechanism by which functions or entities are able to exist in different forms. Additions in UML 2.
Originally UML specified 9 diagrams. UML 2. The four diagrams that were added are : timing diagram, communication diagram, interaction overview diagram and composite structure diagram.
It is the building block of all object oriented software systems. Class diagrams also help us identify relationship between different classes or objects. Composite Structure Diagram — We use composite structure diagrams to represent the internal structure of a class and its interaction points with other parts of the system. A composite structure diagram represents relationship between parts and their configuration which determine how the classifier class, a component, or a deployment node behaves.
They represent internal structure of a structured classifier making the use of parts, ports, and connectors. We can also model collaborations using composite structure diagrams.
They are similar to class diagrams except they represent individual parts in detail as compared to the entire class. Object Diagram — An Object Diagram can be referred to as a screenshot of the instances in a system and the relationship that exists between them. Since object diagrams depict behaviour when objects have been instantiated, we are able to study the behaviour of the system at a particular instant. An object diagram is similar to a class diagram except it shows the instances of classes in the system.
We depict actual classifiers and their relationships making the use of class diagrams. On the other hand, an Object Diagram represents specific instances of classes and relationships between them at a point of time.
Component Diagram — Component diagrams are used to represent the how the physical components in a system have been organized. We use them for modelling implementation details. Component Diagrams depict the structural relationship between software system elements and help us in understanding if functional requirements have been covered by planned development.
Component Diagrams become essential to use when we design and build complex systems. Interfaces are used by components of the system to communicate with each other. Deployment Diagram — Deployment Diagrams are used to represent system hardware and its software.
It tells us what hardware components exist and what software components run on them. We illustrate system architecture as distribution of software artifacts over distributed targets. An artifact is the information that is generated by system software. They are primarily used when a software is being used, distributed or deployed over multiple machines with different configurations. Package Diagram — We use Package Diagrams to depict how packages and their elements have been organized.
A package diagram simply shows us the dependencies between different packages and internal composition of packages.
Packages help us to organise UML diagrams into meaningful groups and make the diagram easy to understand. They are primarily used to organise class and use case diagrams. Behavior Diagrams — State Machine Diagrams — A state diagram is used to represent the condition of the system or part of the system at finite instances of time.
State diagrams are also referred to as State machines and State-chart Diagrams.
These terms are often used interchangeably. So simply, a state diagram is used to model the dynamic behavior of a class in response to time and changing external stimuli. Activity Diagrams — We use Activity Diagrams to illustrate the flow of control in a system.
We can also use an activity diagram to refer to the steps involved in the execution of a use case.These semantic rules fully modeling constructs used for representing the ATC defined and consistent.
Formal UML use case diagram of use cases and identify important actors.
The Unified Modeling Language User Guide
Below, you can find a simplified example for getting a general idea of how it looks. It is a full development platform that supports the software development process from requirements through testing. This includes class, composite structure, component, deployment, object, and package diagrams Reference: Class diagrams also help us identify relationship between different classes or objects. Integer ramparea: UML diagrams represent two different views of a system model:  Static or structural view: emphasizes the static structure of the system using objects, attributes, operations and relationships.