Thank you for choosing Mastering VMware vSphere 4. This book Microsoft SQL Server ,'' available on VMware's website at tisidelaso.gq As part of the highly acclaimed Mastering series from Sybex, this book offers a comprehensive look at VMware vSphere 4, how to implement it, and how to make . Introduction to VMware vSphere covers ESX, ESXi, and vCenter Server. .. physical x86 server has four dual-core CPUs running at 4GHz each and 32GB of .
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Chapter 4: vSphere Update Manager and the vCenter Support Tools. vSphere Foreword. When I handed off the Mastering VMware vSphere series of books to Nick tisidelaso.gq Although. He has three other published books: Mastering VMware vSphere 4, VMware Server ,” available on VMware's website at tisidelaso.gq Accelerated 4 Day Class. Become a VMware Virtualization Master. This Rock Solid Mastering VMware vSphere with ESXi and vCenter Class includes the.
VMware ESXi The core of the vSphere product suite is the hypervisor, which is the virtualization layer that serves as the foundation for the rest of the product line. This is a significant difference from earlier versions of the VMware vSphere product suite.
Although both products shared the same core virtualization engine, supported the same set of virtualization features, leveraged the same licenses, and were both considered bare-metal installations, there were still notable architectural differences. Type 1 and Type 2 Hypervisors Hypervisors are generally grouped into two classes: type 1 hypervisors and type 2 hypervisors. Type 1 hypervisors run directly on the system hardware and thus are often referred to as bare-metal hypervisors. VMware ESXi is a type 1 bare-metal hypervisor.
Figure 1. One such area of enhancement is in the limits of what the hypervisor is capable of supporting. VMware vCenter Server Stop for a moment to think about your current network. Does it include Active Directory? There is a good chance it does. Now imagine your network without Active Directory, without the ease of a centralized management database, without the single sign-on capabilities, and without the simplicity of groups.
Not a very pleasant thought, is it? Now calm yourself down, take a deep breath, and know that vCenter Server, like Active Directory, is meant to provide a centralized management utility for all ESXi hosts and their respective VMs. To help provide scalability, vCenter Server leverages a backend database Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle are both supported, among others that stores all the data about the hosts and VMs. Version 5 of vSphere still offers this Windows-based installation of vCenter Server.
All of these features are described briefly in this chapter and in more detail in later chapters.
Chapter 3 will also examine the differences between the Windows-based version of vCenter Server and the Linux-based vCenter Server virtual appliance. Refer to Table 1. You can install the vSphere Client by browsing to the URL of an ESXi host or vCenter Server and selecting the appropriate installation link although keep in mind that Internet access might be required in order to download the client in some instances.
The vSphere Client provides a rich graphical user interface GUI for all day-to-day management tasks and for the advanced configuration of a virtual infrastructure. While you can connect the vSphere Client either directly to an ESXi host or to an instance of vCenter Server, the full set of management capabilities are only available when connecting the vSphere Client to vCenter Server.
The vSphere Web Client provides a dynamic, webbased user interface for managing a virtual infrastructure, and enables vSphere administrators to manage their infrastructure without first needing to install the full vSphere Client on a system. Because the vSphere Web Client currently only provides a subset of the functionality, I focus primarily on how to use the vSphere Client throughout this book.
Tasks in the vSphere Web Client should be similar. You can apply network security policies across entire groups of machines, ensuring that these policies are maintained properly even though VMs may move from host to host using vSphere vMotion and vSphere DRS.
VMware also offers vShield App, a guest-level firewall that operates at a virtual NIC level and enforces access control policies even between VMs in the same port group; vShield Edge, which provides network edge security and gateway services such as DHCP, NAT, site-tosite VPN, and load balancing; and vShield Endpoint, which enables an introspection-based antivirus solution that third-party antivirus vendors can leverage for more efficient antivirus protection. Using vCenter Orchestrator, vSphere administrators can build automated workflows for a wide variety of tasks available within vCenter Server.
The automated workflows you build using vCenter Orchestrator range from simple to complex. This makes vCenter Orchestrator a powerful tool to use in building automated workflows in the virtualized data center.
This allows organizations to virtualize even more applications without negatively impacting performance or being unable to meet service-level agreements SLAs. This migration between two physical hosts occurs with no downtime and with no loss of network connectivity to the VM. Suppose a physical machine has experienced a non-fatal hardware failure and needs to be repaired.
Administrators can easily initiate a series of vMotion operations to remove all VMs from an ESXi host that is to undergo scheduled maintenance.
After the maintenance is complete and the server is brought back online, administrators can utilize vMotion to return the VMs to the original server. Alternately, consider a situation in which you are migrating from one set of physical servers to a new set of physical servers. Even in normal day-to-day operations, vMotion can be used when multiple VMs on the same host are in contention for the same resource which ultimately is causing poor performance across all the VMs.
What happens when you need to migrate from an older storage array to a newer storage array? What kind of downtime would be required? Or what about a situation where you need to rebalance utilization of the array, either from a capacity or performance perspective? By providing the ability to move the storage for a running VM between datastores, Storage vMotion enables administrators to address all of these situations without downtime.
This feature ensures that outgrowing datastores or moving to a new SAN does not force an outage for the affected VMs and provides administrators with yet another tool to increase their flexibility in responding to changing business needs. What if VMware vSphere could perform vMotion operations automatically? If you think that vMotion sounds exciting, your anticipation will only grow after learning about DRS.
DRS, simply put, leverages vMotion to provide automatic distribution of resource utilization across multiple ESXi hosts that are configured in a cluster.
Windows Server clusters are often active-passive or active-active-passive clusters. However, ESXi clusters are fundamentally different, operating in an active-active mode to aggregate and combine resources into a shared pool. Although the underlying concept of aggregating physical hardware to serve a common goal is the same, the technology, configuration, and feature sets are quite different between VMware ESXi clusters and Windows Server clusters.
After two or more hosts have been assigned to a cluster, they work in unison to provide CPU and memory to the VMs assigned to the cluster. While a VM is running, DRS seeks to provide that VM with the required hardware resources while minimizing the amount of contention for those resources in an effort to maintain balanced utilization levels.
The first part of DRS is often referred to as intelligent placement. DRS can automate the placement of each VM as it is powered on within a cluster, placing it on the host in the cluster that it deems to be best suited to run that VM at that moment. When one of those servers begins to experience a high contention for CPU utilization, DRS detects that the cluster is imbalanced in its resource usage and uses an internal algorithm to determine which VM s should be moved in order to create the least imbalanced cluster.
DRS performs these on-the-fly migrations without any downtime or loss of network connectivity to the VMs by leveraging vMotion, the live migration functionality I described earlier. This makes DRS extremely powerful because it allows clusters of ESXi hosts to dynamically rebalance their resource utilization based on the changing demands of the VMs running on that cluster. Remember from Table 1. With vSphere DRS, though, you can combine multiple smaller servers for the purpose of managing aggregate capacity.
This means that bigger, more powerful servers might not be better servers for virtualization projects. In the same fashion, Storage DRS has an intelligent placement function that automates the placement of VM virtual disks based on storage utilization. Storage DRS does this through the use of datastore clusters. Because Storage vMotion operations are typically much more resource intensive than vMotion operations, vSphere provides extensive controls over the thresholds, timing, and other guidelines that will trigger a Storage DRS automatic migration via Storage vMotion.
These settings are enforced cluster-wide; when an ESXi host detects storage congestion through an increase of latency beyond a user-configured threshold, it will apply the settings configured for that VM. The result is that VMware administrators can ensure that the VMs that need priority access to storage resources get the resources they need. In vSphere 4. Profile-Driven Storage With profile-driven storage, a new feature found in vSphere 5, vSphere administrators are able to use storage capabilities and VM storage profiles to ensure that VMs are residing on storage that is able to provide the necessary levels of capacity, performance, availability, and redundancy.
These storage capabilities represent various attributes of the storage solution. VM storage profiles define the storage requirements for a VM and its virtual disks. You create VM storage profiles by selecting the storage capabilities that must be present in order for the VM to run. Datastores that have all the capabilities defined in the VM storage profile are compliant with the VM storage profile and represent possible locations where the VM could be stored.
This functionality gives vSphere administrators much greater control over the placement of VMs on shared storage and helps ensure that the appropriate functionality for each VM is indeed being provided by the underlying storage. After virtualization, the failure of a physical server will affect many more applications or workloads running on that server at the same time.
Once again, by nature of the naming conventions clusters, high availability , many traditional Windows administrators will have preconceived notions about this feature. Those notions, however, are incorrect in that vSphere HA does not function like a high-availability configuration in Windows.
In a vSphere HA failover situation, there is no anticipation of failure; it is not a planned outage, and therefore there is no time to perform a vMotion operation. First, the scalability of vSphere HAhas been significantly improved; you can now run up to VMs per host up from in earlier versions and 3, VMs per cluster up from 1, in earlier versions.
The third and perhaps most significant improvement is the complete rewrite of the underlying architecture for vSphere HA; this entirely new architecture, known as Fault Domain Manager FDM , eliminates many of the constraints found in earlier versions of VMware vSphere. By default, vSphere HA does not provide failover in the event of a guest OS failure, although you can configure vSphere HA to monitor VMs and restart them automatically if they fail to respond to an internal heartbeat.
If the guest OS has stopped functioning, the VM can be restarted automatically. If a physical host fails, vSphere HA restarts the VM, and during that period of time while the VM is restarting, the applications or services provided by that VM are unavailable.
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For users who need even higher levels of availability than can be provided using vSphere HA, vSphere Fault Tolerance FT , which is described in the next section, can help. As I described in the previous section, vSphere HA protects against unplanned physical server failure by providing a way to automatically restart VMs upon physical host failure. This need to restart a VM in the event of a physical host failure means that some downtime—generally less than three minutes—is incurred.
Everything that occurs on the primary protected VM also occurs simultaneously on the secondary mirrored VM, so that if the physical host on which the primary VM is running fails, the secondary VM can immediately step in and take over without any loss of connectivity.
This ensures protection for the primary VM at all times. In the event of multiple host failures—say, the hosts running both the primary and secondary VMs failed—vSphere HA will reboot the primary VM on another available server, and vSphere FT will automatically create a new secondary VM. Again, this ensures protection for the primary VM at all times. VADP is a set of application programming interfaces APIs that backup vendors leverage in order to provide enhanced backup functionality of virtualized environments.
VADP enables functionality like file-level backup and restore; support for incremental, differential, and full-image backups; native integration with backup software; and support for multiple storage protocols. On its own, though, VADP is just a set of interfaces, like a framework for making backups possible. Even within the type 1 hypervisors, there are architectural differences that make direct comparisons difficult. In the case of Hyper-V, for example, as soon as Windows Server —the general-purpose operating system running in the parent partition —supports a particular type of hardware, then Hyper-V supports it also.
This typically provides greater throughput and lower overhead at the expense of slightly more limited hardware compatibility. This architectural difference is fundamental. Nowhere is this architectural difference more greatly demonstrated than in ESXi, which has a small footprint yet provides a fullfeatured virtualization solution.
In the end, each of the virtualization products has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, and large organizations may end up using multiple products. For example, VMware vSphere might be best suited in the large corporate datacenter, while Microsoft Hyper-V or Citrix XenServer might be acceptable for test, development, or branch-office deployment. As you can see, VMware vSphere offers some pretty powerful features that will change the way you view the resources in your datacenter.
Some of these features, though, might not be applicable to all organizations, which is why VMware has crafted a flexible licensing scheme for organizations of all sizes.
Licensing VMware vSphere With the introduction of VMware vSphere 4, VMware introduced new licensing tiers and bundles that were intended to provide a good fit for every market segment. VMware has refined this licensing arrangement with the release of VMware vSphere 5. VMware vCenter Server Standard, which includes all functionality and does not have a preset limit on the number of vSphere hosts it can manage although normal sizing limits do apply.
These three editions are differentiated by two things: the features each edition supports and the vRAM entitlement. Starting with vSphere 5. Servers licensed with VMware vSphere 5 can have as many cores per CPU socket and as much physical memory installed as the user would like.
So, a physical server with two physical CPUs would need two licenses, and there is no limit on the number of cores or the amount of RAM that can be physically installed in the server.
This gives administrators greater flexibility in managing vRAM entitlements. The basic idea behind vRAM entitlements is to help organizations move closer to usage-based cost and chargeback models that are more typical of cloud computing environments and Infrastructure as a Service IaaS models.
This information is presented in Table 1. I did not include them in Table 1. Because prices change and vary depending on partner, region, and other factors, I have not included any pricing information here. In addition to the different editions described above, VMware also offers some bundles, referred to as kits. All these limits are product-enforced. Like other editions, vSphere Essentials Plus requires at least one year of SnS; this must be downloadd separately and is not included in the bundle.
These kits are licensed per site 10 sites minimum, with a maximum of three hosts per site , and customers can add additional sites as required. VMware also has Acceleration Kits, which combine the different components of the vSphere product suite together. While the Essentials Kits are bundled and treated as a single unit, the Acceleration Kits merely offer customers an easier way to download the necessary licenses in one step.
Why Choose vSphere? Much has been said and written about the total cost of ownership TCO and return on investment ROI for virtualization projects involving VMware virtualization solutions. This calculator is available online at www.
In the past, this meant ordering hardware, waiting on the hardware to arrive, racking and cabling the equipment once it arrived, installing the operating system and patching it with the latest updates, and then installing the application. The time frame for all these steps ranged anywhere from a few days to a few months and was typically a couple of weeks. Now their provisioning time is down to hours, likely even minutes. Chapter 10 discusses this functionality in detail.
However, the business leaders are a bit concerned about upgrading the current version. Chapter 9 discusses snapshots. In order to do so, however, a hardware upgrade is needed on the servers currently running ESXi. The business is worried about the downtime that will be necessary to perform the hardware upgrades. Chapter 12 discusses vMotion in more depth. Scenario 4 After the great success it has had virtualizing its infrastructure with vSphere, XYZ Corporation now finds itself in need of a new, larger shared storage array.
Chapter 12 discusses Storage vMotion. These scenarios begin to provide some idea of the benefits that organizations see when virtualizing with an enterprise-class virtualization solution like VMware vSphere. Virtualization, by its very nature, means that you are going to take multiple operating systems—such as Microsoft Windows, Linux, Solaris, or Novell NetWare—and run them on a single physical server.
While VMware vSphere offers broad support for virtualizing a wide range of operating systems, it would be almost impossible for me to discuss how virtualization impacts all the different versions of all the different operating systems that vSphere supports.
Because the majority of organizations that adopt vSphere are primarily virtualizing Microsoft Windows, that operating system will receive the majority of attention when it comes to describing procedures that must occur within a virtualized operating system.
You will also see coverage of tasks for a virtualized installation of Linux as well, but the majority of the coverage will be for Microsoft Windows. If you are primarily virtualizing something other than Microsoft Windows, VMware provides more in-depth information on all the operating systems it supports and how vSphere interacts with those operating systems on its website at www.
The Bottom Line Identify the role of each product in the vSphere product suite. Recognize the interaction and dependencies between the products in the vSphere suite VMware ESXi forms the foundation of the vSphere product suite, but some features require the presence of vCenter Server.
Understand how vSphere differs from other virtualization products. This means that a host operating system, like Windows or Linux, is not required in order for ESXi to function. Master One of the administrators on your team asked whether he should install Windows Server on the new servers you downloadd for ESXi. What should you tell him, and why? The deployment, installation, and configuration of VMware ESXi require adequate planning for a successful, VMware-supported implementation.
A vSphere deployment affects storage, networking, and security in as equally significant ways as the physical servers themselves.
Without the appropriate planning, your vSphere implementation runs the risk of configuration problems, instability, incompatibilities, and diminished financial impact. Your planning process for a vSphere deployment involves answering a number of questions please note that this list is far from comprehensive : What form of ESXi will I use: Installable or Embedded?
What types of servers will I use for the underlying physical hardware? What kinds of storage will I use, and how will I connect that storage to my servers? Jennifer Leland Technical Editor: Duncan Epping Production Editor: Liz Britten Copy Editor: Linda Recktenwald Editorial Manager: Pete Gaughan Production Manager: Richard Swadley Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Book Designer: Ted Laux Project Coordinator, Cover: Katherine Crocker Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed Cover Image: No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections or of the United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA , , fax The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose.
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I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at nedde wiley.
Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex. Above all, I dedicate this book to God, whose hand held me up when I needed strength Psalm I also dedicate this book to my wife, Crystal, and my kids.
Aside from the Lord, you guys are and always have been my source of inspiration and joy. Thank you! Forbes, it was great working with you again after VMware vSphere Design.
Gabe, thanks for your contributions and your attention to detail. Glenn, your expertise is much appreciated and it shows in your work. To each of you, thank you. Your help is greatly valued. Duncan, thank you for your time and effort. This book is a better work for your involvement, and I hope that we have the opportunity to work together again in the future. Agatha Kim, the acquisitions editor; Jennifer Leland, the developmental editor; Liz Britten, the production editor; Linda Recktenwald, the copyeditor; proofreader, Kristy Eldredge; Pete Gaughan, the editorial manager; and Neil Edde, the publisher.
I cannot adequately describe just how important each of you was in producing this book and making it what it is. Thank you, each and every one of you. Thank you, Matt Portnoy, for reviewing the content and providing an objective opinion on what could be done to improve it. I appreciate your time and your candor.
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Thank you, EMC Corporation, for your cooperation in getting this book published. Finally, thanks to the vendors who supplied equipment to use while I was writing the book in alphabetical order: I sincerely appreciate the support of all of these vendors. About the Author Scott Lowe is an author, consultant, speaker, and blogger focusing on virtualization, storage, and other enterprise technologies.
In this role, Scott provides technical leadership, support, and training to the vSpecialist team worldwide. As an author, Scott has contributed to numerous online magazines focused on VMware and related virtualization technologies.
He is regularly quoted as a virtualization expert in virtualization news stories.
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He has three other published books: Scott has spoken at several VMworld conferences as well as other virtualization conferences. He regularly speaks at VMware user group meetings, both locally and abroad.Fortunately, a deeper look into the server models available from a specific vendor, such as HP, reveals server models of all types and sizes see Figure 2.
PowerShell is used in Windows administration for many years and it evolved to a point, where you don't ask yourself why using it, but how to get started effectively and what resource to have. He is regularly quoted as a virtualization expert in virtualization news stories.
For example, VMware vSphere might be best suited in the large corporate datacenter, while Microsoft Hyper-V or Citrix XenServer might be acceptable for test, development, or branch-office deployment. VMware is discontinuing VMware vSphere Data Protection VDP , a general- purpose backup product included with vSphere, making the related ecosystem the proper way to manage those aspects.
For detailed information on VMware vSphere 4. It also details the deployment of PSC, vCenter Server, and other components, including vCSA solutions and specific features and capabilities of the new version, 6.