Mariano Azuelaʼs Los de abajo: Patriarchal Masculinity Resumen. Desde hace años, se reconoce Los de abajo de Mariano Azuela como la. Resumen. Las novelas de bandidos de Latinoamérica en los siglos XIX y XX Revolución Mexicana, Los de abajo () de Mariano Azuela, desafía la. Complete summary of Mariano Azuela's The Underdogs. eNotes plot summaries cover all the significant action of The Underdogs.

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Java los archivos no se abren libro los de abajo pdf gratis leitor de pdf para psp Psp los de abajo mariano azuela resumen pdf los hornos de hitler pdf olga. The Underdogs a Novel of the Mexican Revolution by Mariano Azuela. Get The Underdogs a +Chapters Summary and Analysis. Part I, I - IV · Part I, V - X. Resumen. Las novelas de bandidos de Latinoamérica en los siglos XIX y XX reflejan una ausencia In Mariano Azuela's Revolution-era novel, Los de abajo.

However, in , in the counterrevolution led by Victoriano Huerta, Madero was assassinated and Azuela joined the rebel forces of Pancho Villa.

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Forced to immigrate to El Paso, Texas, Azuela settled there and reworked his memories of the revolution into a novel, Los de Abajo, known to English-speaking readers as The Underdogs.

In , Azuela moved to Mexico City, where he continued to write and practice medicine for the rest of his life. Initially slow to win a popular following, The Underdogs captured international critical acclaim in the mids, establishing Azuela as the preeminent novelist of the Mexican Revolution.

He died in Do these traits remain consistent throughout the novel? Do you prefer seeing the names translated or untranslated?

Does his building up of their legend detract from the realism of the novel? Does Azuela do enough to represent the position of women in Mexican society and in the revolution? What, if anything, would you have done differently to tell this aspect of the story? What do they gain from each other?

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Does each have something to teach that the other is incapable of learning? What, if anything, is lacking in their friendship?

It is a principal irony of The Underdogs that the revolutionaries who set out to rid their country of oppression and injustice end up adopting the corrupt values and practices of their enemies. Why does this happen? At the time of the commission she was busy preparing a book in English on Mexican art that would eventually become her magnum opus, Idols Behind Altars. While Brenner intended to mask her patronage in fear that Orozco would not accept money from her, the well-intended ruse turned out to be rather transparent.

She in essence was the gringa client who had her own book in mind when commissioning the drawings. In the end, several images from the series were featured in Brenner's publication. At the time Brenner commissioned the drawings from Orozco, he had already begun the second phase of work on the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria murals, which relate both formally and thematically to the Horrores series. Accommodating the monumentality of the murals in a small-scale format, the drawings carry forward some of the general themes begun on the third floor of the enp.

Some of the iconographic elements shared between the murals and the drawings are: soldiers preparing for or returning from battle, grave diggers, torn maguey plants, as well as blank architectural backdrops.

What I would like to emphasize here, however, is rupture and not continuity. While there is a tendency to group all of Orozco's work with revolutionary themes into a cohesive entity, the Horrores are a breed apart. Though they relate to the third floor murals of the Preparatoria, the drawings propose a very different viewpoint of the Revolution. The third floor Preparatoria murals painted during the post-Revolution, an era of consolidation, evoke a temporally abstract notion of the civil war.

Debates remain to this day as to whether the scenes depict moments before or after the Revolution. Are the workers leaving or returning home? Are the soldiers returning from or preparing for battle? Only one of these three panels, Revolutionaries, is part of the cohesive third floor that has been compared to the Horrores. The rest of the six panels on the third floor evoke the Revolution through more oblique means: the impact on the land, the implicit sacrifices of war, and the separation of families.

Armed struggle, indeed struggle in any sense of the word, is not signified. As others have commented, Orozco's unified statement about the civil war is a muted drama which evokes restrained and subdued emotions with little emphasis on direct action.

While the Preparatoria scenes manifest an understated sense of drama, an overall static quality, and a sense of controlled emotion, the Horrores, as a series, represents sheer brutality and bloodshed; the drawings are tragic, expressive, aggressive, and abject. Many graphically depict blood, body parts, intense drama, emotional and physical suffering, as well as overt action.

Significantly, the carnage of the Revolution is enacted on the human body which is depicted as vulnerable, fragmented, and dislocated. Among the drawings that most graphically display corporeal devastation are Mutilated and The Wounded, images of temporary field hospitals filled with disfigured and amputated soldiers.


Piles of dead bodies abound in several other drawings. Battlefield No. The bodies are so flat, they seem to be eviscerated of skeleton and bone, appearing as lumps of flesh lining the hill. Each drawing includes the form of a hat that sits in volumetric repose to the formless bodies.

Under the Maguey, a similar composition, contains two figures beneath a cactus. A sharp knife held in the stiff hands of the central corpse provides the focus of the image and mimics the tactile sharp tendrils of the cactus above. The dead body to the right of The Destroyed House is stabbed in the back with a knife and the rape scene to the left of the image is almost the mirror-image of the one depicted in The Rape.

Common Grave is a conglomeration of fragmented body parts while Dynamited Train on the right depicts three naked figures. In the foreground, one of the women crouches on her knees with her upper body slouched forward.

Her head is covered by a piece of corrugated metal, from which blood drips down her body in a pattern that formally mirrors the corrugation. Drops of blood coagulate at her elbow and at her nipple. With a biting realism, Orozco visualizes the sheer brute force and violence of the Revolution.

Workers stage a violent strike, a train is held up at knife point, houses and churches are looted, enemies kneel before the firing squad and armed forces clash head-on in a battle that sees no victor. The drawings are explicit in a way the murals are not.

Unlike the ambiguous temporal location of the Preparatoria scenes, the Horrores clearly depict the Revolution, not moments before or after. Bodily carnage and physical pain, effaced in the murals, are "brought back with graphic certainty" 8 in the drawings.

Octavio Paz has described, in reference to the drawings, how Orozco "made mock of the Revolution as an idea and found it repellent as a system and horrifying as a power. The capacity of the drawings to make one viscerally experience the Revolution and to provoke intense emotive responses, has lead to speculations about their social function. In the United States they have been seen as a force for political change.

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Calling them "little 'painted bibles,'"Alma Reed interpreted them as moralistic tales "unshaken in their demand that we abandon the ways of the jungle. As the drawings were made, Orozco delivered them to Brenner who held onto them until they were brought to the United States.

They were destined, from their inception, for an audience north of the border far removed from the political realities of the post-revolutionary period. The circumstances of their production made social change least desirable.

Such a vision of the Revolution precludes the idea that Orozco desired to effect any particular change with his series.

Though these images represent a compassion for the oppressed and are an invective against social injustice, Orozco did not aim to direct behavior because he did not think it was possible. The whole point of the series is that we are condemned to a power beyond our control.

The Horrores commission and Brenner's support of Orozco fell within her larger plan to bring an awareness of Mexican art to the United States.

From the beginning, she pushed Orozco to create enough for an exhibition. Once Brenner arrived in New York in she showed the Horrores to numerous gallerists, dealers, and critics with the hope of securing an exhibition for the series. Yet, the plan failed as the drawings were not well received. Years later she remarked: "At that time, the Mexican painters were so little known that I got a rather odd reception, and it was pointed out to me that these things weren't really art, they were drawings and cartoons suitable for the New Masses, and I was seriously advised by an art dealer who is now one of the Orozco 'Discoverers' to take them to that magazine.

Neumann of the New Art Circle not only questioned their status as art, but also suggested to Brenner that they were "insulting to lovers of pure art. The influx and dominance of French art at the time played into the skewed reception of Orozco's drawings. Though Brenner received some positive feedback from the Anderson Galleries and deposited a few of the drawings at the Weyhe Gallery on consignment, no exhibition organized by her ever materialized.

The mainstream art galleries of New York decided the subject matter of the drawings made them suitable for the social criticism and political cartoons of the radical Marxist magazine New Masses but not mainstream consumption.

Though the drawings were created by Orozco for an audience supposedly removed from the historical realities of the civil war in Mexico, the artist was not any freer to represent the Revolution in the United States. When they were finally publicly displayed, through the efforts of Alma Reed, at the Marie Sterner Galleries in New York in as the Mexico in Revolution series, the drawings launched the season to virtually no reviews.

The Underdogs Reader’s Guide

With regard to the violence of the images one guest had asked Tablada "why do Mexicans do this?After Zacatecas, Demetrio's army and his own psychological state, begin to decline. From the entire Horrores series, Orozco made lithographic versions of four drawings; following The Flag he produced Requiem, ; Ruined House, ; and Rear Guard, The influx and dominance of French art at the time played into the skewed reception of Orozco's drawings.

Feb 15, Gabriel rated it it was amazing. The fiery idealism that has scorched the foundations of power now threatens to erupt into an inferno of anarchic rage, and the revolution that the common people had hailed as a blessing seems likely to transform into the blackest of curses.

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