Similar Free eBooks. Filter by page count Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors. Lecture Notes. The Microcontroller and Embedded Systems Using Assembly and C Second Edition Muhammad Ali. Microprocessor & Microcontroller Theory & Applications Full Notes Download PDF eBook. Hello Friends, Here is the Notes for Electrical and. This book on Microprocessors and Microcontrollers is primarily designed for undergraduate students of this subject and will be very useful for self-study. Balanced coverage of and Microprocessors. Extensive coverage of topics like Instruction sets, Memory and.
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The microcontroller has learnt during its evolution a trick. Central Processor Unit CPU As its name suggests, this is a unit which monitors and controls all processes inside the microcontroller.
It consists of several smaller subunits, of which the most important are: Instruction Decoder is a part of the electronics which recognizes program instructions and runs other circuits on the basis of that. It also stores the results ready for use in further processing. There are two types of buses: the address bus and the data bus. The address bus consists of as many lines as necessary for memory addressing. It is used to transmit the address from the CPU to the memory.
The data bus is as wide as the data, in our case it is 8 bits or wires wide. It is used to connect all circuits inside the microcontroller.
However, in other cases - when it is necessary to establish communication between two devices on longer distances it is not possible to use a parallel connection - such a simple solution is out of question.
In these situations, serial communication is the best solution. Today, most microcontrollers have built in several different systems for serial communication as a standard equipment. Which of these systems will be used depends on many factors of which the most important are: How many devices the microcontroller has to exchange data with?
How fast the data exchange has to be?
What is the distance between devices? Is it necessary to send and receive data simultaneously? One of the most important things concerning serial communication is the Protocol which Fig. It is a set of rules which must be applied in order that the devices can correctly interpret data they mutually exchange. Baud Rate The term Baud rate is commonly used to denote the number of bits transferred per second [bps]. It should be noted that it refers to bits, not bytes!
It is usually required by the protocol that each byte is transferred along with several control bits. It means that one byte in serial data stream may consist of 11 bits. For example, if the baud rate is bps then maximum 37 and minimum 27 bytes may be transferred per second, which depends on type of connection and protocol in use. The most commonly used serial communication systems are: I2C Inter Integrated Circuit is a system used when the distance between the microcontrollers is short and specialized integrated circuits of of a new generation receiver and transmitter are usually on the same printed circuit board.
Connection is established via two conductors- one is used for data transfer whereas another is used for synchronization clock signal.
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As seen in figure, one device is always the master. It performs addressing of one slave chip subordinated before communication starts. In this way one microcontroller can communicate with different devices.
Systems with the baud rate of 3. The distance between devices which communicate via an inter-integrated circuit bus is limited to several meters. SPI Serial Peripheral Interface Bus is a system for serial communication which uses up to four conductors usually three - one for data receiving, one for data sending, one for synchronization and one alternatively for selecting the device to communicate with. It is full duplex connection, which means that data is sent and received simultaneously.
The maximum baud rate is higher than in I2C connection. In some situations this feature is crucial for example, radio connection or infrared waves remote control.
Since only one communication line is used, both receiver and transmitter operate at the same predefined rate in order to maintain necessary synchronization.
This is a very simple way of transferring data since it basically represents conversion of 8-bit data from parallel to serial format. Oscillator Even pulses coming from the oscillator enable harmonic and synchronous operation of all circuits of the microcontroller.
The oscillator module is usually configured to use quartz crystal or ceramic resonator for frequency stabilization. Furthermore, it can also operate without elements for frequency stabilization like RC oscillator. It is important to say that instructions are not executed at the rate imposed by the oscillator itself, but several times slower.
It happens because each instruction is executed in several steps. In some microcontrollers, the same number of cycles is needed to execute any instruction, while in others, the execution time is not the same for all instructions. Accordingly, if the system uses quartz crystal with a frequency of 20 Mhz, execution time of an instruction is not 50nS, but , or nS, depending on the type of Microcontroller Unit MCU!
Power supply circuit There are two things worth attention concerning the microcontroller power supply circuit: Brown-out is a potentially dangerous state which occurs at the moment the microcontroller is being turned off or in situations when power supply voltage drops to the limit due to electric noise.
As the microcontroller consists of several circuits which have different operating voltage levels, this state can cause its out-of-control performance. In order to prevent it, the microcontroller usually has built-in circuit for brown out reset. This circuit immediately resets the whole electronics when the voltage level drops below the limit. Reset pin is usually marked as MCLR Master Clear Reset and serves for external reset of the microcontroller by applying logic zero 0 or one 1 , depending on type of the microcontroller.
In case the brown out circuit is not built in, a simple external circuit for brown out reset can be connected to this pin. Even though it is not the simplest solution, there are many reasons to use it. Namely, the frequency of such oscillator is precisely defined and very stable, the pulses it generates are always of the Fig.
Such oscillators are used in quartz watches. If it is necessary to measure time between two events, it is sufficient to count pulses coming from this oscillator. That is exactly what the timer does. These are commonly 8- or bit SFRs and their content is automatically incremented by each coming pulse.
Once a register is completely loaded - an interrupt is generated! If the timer registers use an internal quartz oscillator for their operation then it is possible to measure time between two events if the register value is T1 at the moment measurement has started, and T2 at the moment it has finished, then the elapsed time is equal to the result of subtraction T2-T1.
If the registers use pulses coming from external source then such a timer is turned into a counter. This is only a simple explanation of the operation itself. How does a timer operate? In practice pulses coming from the quartz oscillator are once per each machine cycle directly or via a prescaler brought to the circuit which increments the number in the timer register.
If one instruction one machine cycle lasts for four quartz oscillator periods then, by embedding quartz with the frequency of 4MHz, this number will be changed a million times per second each microsecond. This obvious disadvantage may be easily overcome in several ways by using a slower oscillator, registers with more bits, a prescaler or interrupts. The first two solutions have some weaknesses so it is preferable to use prescalers or interupts.
Using prescaler in timer operating A prescaler is an electronic device used to reduce a frequency by a pre-determined factor. Meaning that in order to generate one pulse on its output, it is necessary to bring 1, 2 , 4 or more pulses to its input.
One such circuit is built in the microcontroller and its division rate can be changed from within the program. It is used when it is necessary to measure longer periods of time. One prescaler is usually shared by timer and watch-dog timer, which means that it cannot be used by both of them simultaneously. If this number is exceeded, the timer will be automatically reset and counting will start from zero again.
This condition is called overflow. If enabled from within the program, such overflow can cause an interrupt, which gives completely new possibilities. For example, the state of registers used for counting seconds, minutes or days can be changed in an interrupt routine. Delays of arbitrary duration with minimal interference by the main program execution can be easily obtained by assigning a prescaler to the timer. Counters If a timer is supplying pulses into the microcontroller input pin then it turns into a counter.
Clearly, It is the same electronic circuit. The only difference is that in this case pulses to be counted come through the ports and their duration width is mostly not defined.
This is why they cannot be used for time measurement, but can be used to measure anything else: products on an assembly line, number of axis rotation, passengers etc. Watchdog Timer The Watchdog Timer is a timer connected to a completely separate RC oscillator within the microcontroller. If the watchdog timer is enabled, every time it counts up to the program end, the microcontroller reset occurs and program execution starts from the first instruction.
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The point is to prevent this from happening by using a specific command. The whole idea is based on the fact that every program is executed in several longer or shorter loops. If instructions which reset the watchdog timer are set at the appropriate program locations, besides commands being regularly executed, then the operation of the watchdog timer will not affect program execution. Reset occurs! An analogue to digital converter is an electronic circuit which converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers.
This module is therefore used to convert some analogue value into binary number and forwards it to the CPU for further processing.
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In other words, this module is used for input pin voltage measurement analogue value. The result of measurement is a number digital value used and processed later in the program. Briefly, they are two different ways of data exchange between CPU and memory. As all data are exchanged by using these 8 lines, this bus is overloaded and communication itself is very slow and inefficient. Both cannot occur at the same time since the instructions and data use the same bus system.
The same data bus is used for all these intermediate operations. Harvard Architecture Microcontrollers using this architecture have two different data buses.
Accordingly, the CPU can read an instruction and perform a data memory access at the same time. Since all RAM memory registers are 8 bits wide, all data within the microcontroller are exchanged in the same such format. Additionally, during program writing, only 8 bits data are considered. In other words, all you can ever change from within the program and all you can affect will be 8 bits wide.
A program written for some of these microcontrollers will be stored in the microcontroller internal ROM upon having being compiled into machine language. However, these memory locations do not have 8, but 12, 14 or 16 bits.
The rest of bits- 4, 6 or 8- represents the instruction itself specifying to the CPU what to do with the 8-bit data. The advantages of such design are the following: All data in a program is one byte 8 bit wide. As the data bus used for program reading has several lines 12, 14 or 16 , both instructions and data can be read simultaneously by using these spare bits. Therefore, all instructions are executed in only one instruction cycle.
The only exception is jump instruction which is executed in two cycles.
Simply, while RAM read or write is in progress the end of one instruction , the next program instruction is being read via another bus. When using microcontrollers with von-Neumann architecture one never knows how much memory is to be occupied by some program.
Basically, each program instruction occupies two memory locations one contains information on WHAT should be done, whereas another contains information upon WHICH data it should be done. However, it is not a hard and fast rule, but the most common case. In microcontrollers with Harvard architecture, the program bus is wider than one byte, which allows each program word to consist of instruction and data. In other words: one program word- one instruction. The main restriction in this process is the number of available instructions.
The manufacturers stick to one of the two following strategies: RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer In this case, the microcontroller recognizes and executes only basic operations addition, subtraction, copying etc. All other more complicated operations are performed by combining these for example, multiplication is performed by performing successive addition. The constrains are obvious try by using only a few words, to explain to someone how to reach the airport in some other city. However, there are also some great advantages.
Introduction to Microcontrollers. Guenther Gridling, Bettina Weiss Publisher: Vienna University of Technology, An Real-Time Operating System. It covers mainly the family of micro-controllers starting with the basic architecture and then moves on to assembly language. PIC Microcontrollers: Programming in Basic. All you need to know about designing and building PIC devices. Sign in Join. Sign in. Log into your account.
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When logic zero 0 appears on its input, a logic one 1 appears on its output and vice versa. It happens because each instruction is executed in several steps.
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